Resources & Research
Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs
National Association of Lesbian & Gay Addiction Professionals
The NALGAP’s mission is to confront homophobia and heterosexism in the delivery of services to LBTQ people and to advocate for LBTQ-affirming programs and services.
Alcohol and Drug Information for LGBT Populations
Information on substance abuse, youth suicide, eating disorders and other health issues.
Counseling & Hotlines
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Helpline
This national toll-free helpline provides free confidential information, referrals, crisis intervention and support to callers seven evenings a week.
Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund
Provides legal advice and support for people experiencing sexual orientation-based harassment and other discrimination.
National Center for Lesbian Rights (NCLR)
The pioneering national legal organization committed to advancing the civil and human rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people and their families through litigation, public policy advocacy and public education.
Families & Friends
Parents & Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG)
PFLAG promotes the health and well being of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered persons, their families and friends.
Our Family Coalition promotes the equality and well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer families with children.
The FAP uses a research-based, culturally grounded approach to help ethnically, socially and religiously diverse families decrease rejection and increase support for their LGBT children.
Initiated by Nanette Gartrell, MD, the NLLFS examines the social, psychological, and emotional development of the children as well as the dynamics of planned lesbian families.
Lesbians & Bisexual Women
The Mautner Project for Lesbians with Cancer
Provides direct services to lesbians with cancer, their partners and caregivers as well as advocacy for lesbian health issues in national and local arenas.
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Health, Education and Research Trust (LGBT HEART)
This group distinguishes itself from other LGBT-specific organizations by being the only organization to offer support on a national level to cultivate future clinicians and leaders in LGBT health care.
LHF, a project of the Gay & Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA), supports medical research in areas such as: rates and risk factors for cancers, infections, and diseases among lesbians, access to the health care system, mental health concerns of lesbians and their families, and many others.
Located in Boston, Fenway Health works to enhance the wellbeing of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community by providing access to high quality health care, education, research, and advocacy.
Provides information and resources regarding sexual health and sexually transmitted diseases in women who have sex with women and furthers collective knowledge about lesbian STIs through research.
Provider & Physician Referral
The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA)
National organization of 2,000 medical professionals, with a number of local groups of local LBTQ physicians and other clinicians in major metropolitan areas.
Safety & Violence
Gay and Lesbian Victims' Assistance Hotline
Assists all victims of anti-gay incidents and provides a centralized source of information and documentation.
Intersex Society of North America (ISNA)
An education, advocacy and peer support organization that works to create a world free of shame, secrecy and unwanted surgery for intersex people (individuals born with anatomy or physiology which differs from cultural ideals of male and female).
National transgender educational and medical resource for M-to-F transsexual transition provided by medical, psychological and electrolysis specialists.
The Trevor Project
A national 24-hour toll-free suicide prevention hotline aimed at gay or questioning youth. All calls are handled by trained counselors, and are free and confidential.
It’s imperative that lesbian health issues continue to be researched and then published for the larger scientific and health care community. Below is a partial list of resources and publications. Check back frequently, as we update this list.
- Journal of Lesbian Studies
Interdisciplinary journal published four times a year; examines the cultural, historical and interpersonal impact of the lesbian experience on society.
- American Psychological Association: Public Interest Directorate
Lesbian and Gay Parenting: Summary of Research Findings with Annotated Bibliography
- Journal of Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy
- Journal of Homosexuality
- Journal of LGBT Health Research
- Journal of LGBT Youth
- Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling
- The Family Acceptance Project
A community research and provider training initiative to study the impact of family acceptance and rejection on the health and development of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) and transgender youth who identify as LGB.
- New York City Department of Health Bureau of HIV Prevention Gay and Lesbian Health Report
While targeted towards the New York City community, this article includes information useful to those interested in urban lesbian and gay health in general.
- Journal of Lesbian Studies
Meckler, G.D., Elliott, M.N., Kanouse, D.E., Beals, K.P., & Schuster, M.A. (2006). Nondisclosure of sexual orientation to a physician among a sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 160, 1248-1254.
Ryan, C., Huebner, D., Diaz, R.M., & Sanchez, J. (2009). Family rejection as a predictor of negative health outcomes in White and Latino lesbian, gay, and bisexual young adults. Pediatrics, 123, 346-352.
Perrin, E.C., Cohen, K.M., Gold, M., Ryan, C., Savin-Williams, R.C., & Schorzman, C.M. (2004). Gay and lesbian issues in pediatric health care. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 34, 355-398.
Savin-Williams, R.C., & Ream, G.L. (2007). Prevalence and stability of sexual orientation components during adolescence and young adulthood. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 385-394.
Sison, A.C., & Greydanus, D.E. (2007). Deconstructing adolescent same-sex attraction and sexual behavior in the twenty-first century: Perspectives for the clinician. Primary Care, 34, 293-304.
Blythe, M.J., & Rosenthal, S.L. (2000). Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 27, 125-141.
Alcohol and Drug Abuse
Cochran, S.D., Ackerman, D., Mays, V.M., & Ross, M.W. (2004). Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population. Addiction, 99, 989-998.
Cochran, S.D., Keenan, C., Schober, C., & Mays, V.M. (2000). Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1062-1071.
Drabble, L., & Trocki, K. (2005). Alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and other substance use among lesbian and bisexual women. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 9, 19-30.
Corliss, H.L., Grella, C.E., Mays, V.M., & Cochran, S.D. (2006). Drug use, drug severity, and help-seeking behaviors of lesbian and bisexual women. Journal of Women’s Health, 15, 556-568.
Degenhardt, L. (2005). Drug use and risk behavior among regular ecstasy users: Does sexuality make a difference? Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7, 599-614.
Amadio, D.M,, & Chung, Y.B. (2004). Internalized homophobia and substance use among lesbian, gay and bisexual persons. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 17, 83-101.
Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T.P., Wilsnack, S.C., & Szalacha, L.A. (2007). Childhood risk factors for alcohol abuse and psychological distress among adult lesbians. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 769-789.
Parks, C.A., & Hughes, T.L. (2007). Age differences in lesbian identity development and drinking. Substance Use & Misuse, 42, 361-380.
Gruskin, E., Byrne, K., Kools, S., & Altschuler, A. (2006). Consequences of frequenting the lesbian bar. Women & Health, 44, 103-120.
Cochran, B.N., & Cauce, A.M. (2006). Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 30, 135-146.
Hirschman, J., Whitman, S., & Ansell, D. (2007). The Black:White disparity in breast cancer mortality: The example of Chicago. Cancer Causes & Control, 18, 323-333.
Brown, J.P., & Tracy, J.K. (2008). Lesbians and cancer: An overlooked health disparity. Cancer Causes & Control, 19, 1009-1020.
Frisch, M., Smith, E., Grulich, A., & Johansen, C. (2003). Cancer in a population-based cohort of men and women in registered homosexual partnerships. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 966-972.
Guidry, J.J., Matthews-Juarez, P., & Copeland, V.A. (2003). Barriers to breast cancer control for African-American women: The interdependence of culture and psychosocial issues. Cancer, 97 (Suppl. 1), 318-323.
Matthews, A.K., Brandenburg, D.L., Johnson, T.P., & Hughes, T.L. (2004). Correlates of underutilization of gynecological cancer screening among lesbian and heterosexual women. Preventive Medicine, 38, 105-113.
Boehmer, U., & Case, P. (2004). Physicians don’t ask, sometimes patients tell: Disclosure of sexual orientation among women with breast carcinoma. Cancer, 101, 1882-1889.
Boehmer, U., Linde, R., & Freund, K.M. (2005). Sexual minority women’s coping and psychological adjustment after a diagnosis of breast cancer. Journal of Women’s Health, 14, 214-224.
Kavanaugh-Lynch, M.H.E., White, E., Daling, J.R., & Bowen, D.J. (2002). Correlates of lesbian sexual orientation and the risk of breast cancer. Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 6, 91-95.
Grindel, C.G., McGehee, L.A., Patsdaughter, C.A., & Roberts, S.J. (2006). Cancer prevention and screening behaviors in lesbians. Women & Health, 44, 15-39.
Bowen, D.J., Powers, D., & Greenlee, H. (2006). Effects of breast cancer risk counseling for sexual minority women. Health Care for Women International, 27, 59-74.
Arena, P.L., Carver, C.S., Antoni, M.H., Weiss, S., Ironson, G., & Duran, R.E. (2006). Psychosocial responses to treatment for breast cancer among lesbian and heterosexual women. Women & Health, 44, 81-102.
McGregor, B.A., Carver, C.S., Antoni, M.H., Weiss, S., Yount, S.E., & Ironson, G. (2001). Distress and internalized homophobia among lesbian women treated for early stage breast cancer. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25, 1-9.
Depression and Mental Illness
Gilman, S.E., Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M., Hughes, M., Ostrow, D., & Kessler, R.C. (2001). Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 933-939.
Udry, J.R., & Chantala, K. (2002). Risk assessment of adolescents with same-sex relationships. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 84-92.
Trettin, S., Moses-Kolko, E.L., & Wisner, K.L. (2006). Lesbian perinatal depression and the heterosexism that affects knowledge about this minority population. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 9, 67-73.
Ross, L.E., Steele, L., Goldfinger, C., & Strike, C. (2007). Perinatal depressive symptomatology among lesbian and bisexual women. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 10, 53-59.
Matthews, A.K., Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T., Razzano, L.A., & Cassidy, R. (2002). Prediction of depressive distress in a community sample of women: The role of sexual orientation. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1131-1139.
Mays, V.M., & Cochran, S.D. (2001). Mental health correlates of perceived discrimination among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1869-1876.
Crothers, L., Haller, E., Benton, C., & Haag, S. (2008). A clinical comparison of lesbian and heterosexual women in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. Journal of Homosexuality, 54, 280-292.
De Graaf, R., Sandfort, T.G., & ten Have, M. (2006). Suicidality and sexual orientation: Differences between men and women in a general population-based sample from the Netherlands. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 253-262.
Balsam, K.F., Rothblum, E.D., & Beauchaine, T.P. (2005). Victimization over the life span: A comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 477-487.
Avery, A.M., Hellman, R.E., & Sudderth, L. K. (2001). Satisfaction with mental health services among sexual minorities with major mental illness. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 990-991.
Physical Activity and Obesity
Bowen, D.J., Balsam, K.F., Diegaarde, B., Russo, M., & Escamilla, G.M. (2006). Healthy eating, exercise, and weight: Impressions of sexual minority women. Women & Health, 44, 79-93.
Brittain, D.R., Baillargeon, T., McElroy, M., Aaron, D.J., & Gyurcsik, N.C. (2006). Barriers to moderate physical activity in adult lesbians. Women & Health, 43, 75-92.
Yancey, A.K., Cochran, S.D., Corliss, H.L., & Mays, V.M. (2003). Correlates of over-weight and obesity among lesbian and bisexual women. Preventive Medicine, 36, 676-683.
Kelly, L. (2007). Lesbian body image perceptions: The context of body silence. Qualitative Health Research, 17, 873-883.
Peluso, L., & Vanek, V.W. (2007). Efficacy of gastric bypass in the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 22, 22-28.
Bauer, G.R., & Welles, S.L. (2001). Beyond assumptions of negligible risk: Sexually transmitted diseases and women who have sex with women. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1282-1286.
Marrazzo, J.M., Koutsky, L.A., Kiviat, N.B., Kuypers, J.M., & Stine, K. (2001). Papanicolaou test screening and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus among women who have sex with women. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 947-952.
Marrazzo, J.M., Stine, K., & Wald, A. (2003). Prevalence and risk factors for infection with herpes simplex virus type-1 and -2 among lesbians. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 30, 890-895.
Scheer, S., Peterson, I., Page-Shafer, K., Delgado, V., Gleghorn, A., Ruiz, J., et al. (2002). Sexual and drug use behavior among women who have sex with both women and men: Results of a population-based survey. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1110-1112.
Kwakwa, H.A., & Ghobrial, M.W. (2003). Female-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 36, e40-e41.
Campos-Outcalt, D., & Hurwitz, S. (2002). Female-to-female transmission of syphilis: A case report. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29, 119-120.
Koumans, E.H., Sternberg, M., Bruce, C., McQuillan, G., Kendrick, J., Sutton, M., et al. (2007). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the United States, 2001-2004; associations with symptoms, sexual behaviors, and reproductive health. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 34, 864-869.
Heck, J.E., & Jacobsen, J.S. (2006). Asthma diagnosis among individuals in same-sex relationships. Journal of Asthma, 43, 579-584.
Gruskin, EP., Greenwood, G.L., Matevia, M., Pollack, L.M., & Bye, L.L. (2007). Disparities in smoking between the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population and the general population in California. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 1496-1502.
Tang, H., Greenwood, G.L., Cowling, D.W., Lloyd, J.C., Roeseler, A.G., & Bal, D.G. (2004). Cigarette smoking among lesbians, gays, and bisexuals: How serious a problem? (United States). Cancer Causes and Control, 15, 797-803.
Stevens, P., Carlson, L.M., & Hinman, J.M. (2004). An analysis of tobacco industry marketing to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations: Strategies for mainstream tobacco control and prevention. Health Promotion Practice, 5(Suppl. 3), 129S-134S.
Mays, V.M., Yancey, A.K., Cochran, S.D., Weber, M., & Fielding, J.E. (2002). Heterogeneity of health disparities among African American, Hispanic, and Asian American women: Unrecognized influences of sexual orientation. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 632-639.
Remafedi, G., & Carol, H. (2005). Preventing tobacco use among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 7, 249-256.
Le Cook, B., Wayne, G.F., Keithly, L., & Connolly, G. (2003). One size does not fit all: How the tobacco industry has altered cigarette design to target consumer groups with specific psychological and psychosocial needs. Addiction, 98, 1547-1561.
Ristock, J.L. (2003). Exploring dynamics of abusive lesbian relationships: Preliminary analysis of a multisite, qualitative study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 31, 329-341.
Speziale, B., & Ring, C. (2006). Intimate violence among lesbian couples: Emerging data and critical needs. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 18, 85-96.
Simpson, E.K., & Helfrich, C.A. (2007). Lesbian survivors of intimate partner violences: Provider perspectives on barriers to accessing services. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 18, 39-59.
Peterman, L.M., & Dixon, C.G. (2003). Domestic violence between same-sex partners: Implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81, 40-47.
Hassouneh, D., & Glass, N. (2008). The influence of gender role stereotyping on women’s experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence. Violence Against Women, 14, 310-325.
Coleman, V.E. (2003). Treating the lesbian batterer: Theoretical and clinical considerations – a contemporary psychoanalytic perspective. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 7, 159-205.
Hughes, T.L., Johnson, T., & Wilsnack, S.C. (2001). Sexual assault and alcohol abuse: A comparison of lesbians and heterosexual women. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13, 515-532.
Heidt, J.M., Marx, B.P., & Gold, S.D. (2005). Sexual revictimization among sexual minorities: A preliminary study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 533-540.